The Nkwen Language Alphabet and some Grammatical Aspects

Nkwen Language is a Mother Tongue spoken by the Nkwen people of Cameroon in Africa. It is one of the many Cameroonian Languages on the verge of development. With many aspects already developed, further research is still recommended for the full development and preservation of this language and the culture of the Nkwen people embedded in it.

Nkwen Language is a Mother Tongue spoken by the Nkwen people of Cameroon in Africa. It is one of the many Cameroonian Languages on the verge of development. With many aspects already developed, further research is still recommended for the full development and preservation of this language and the culture of the Nkwen people embedded in it.

Among the many aspects that have been worked on are:

  1. The Alphabet
  2. Tonality
  3. Reading and Writing
  4. Nouns/Noun classes
  5. Verbs
  6. Tenses
  7. Some grammatical aspects.
  8. Etc.

THE NKWEN LANGUAGE ALPHABET (Second Edition)

The first edition of the Nkwen Language Alphabet was established by PROPELCA (Operation Research Project for the Teaching of Cameroonian Languages) and the then Nkwen Language Translation Committee of the Catholic Mission Futru Nkwen in their Summer Linguistic Courses in Aghiati Bafut in the mid-1990s. It was reviewed by S. I. L. (Société International de Linguistique) and some members of the Nkwen Language Committee in a Summer Linguistics Seminar organized by S.I.L. in July 1999 at C.B.C. Nkwen Bamenda. Thus, this second edition of the Nkwen Language Alphabet is made up of 31 sounds as follows:

/a/ /b/ /c/ /d/ /dz/ /ɛ/ /ǝ/ /f/ /g/ /gh/ /i/ /j/ /k/ /kh/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ny/ /ɔ/ /r/ /s/ /sh/ /t/ c /ts/ /u/ /’/ /w/ /y/ /z/ /zh/

THE SOUNDS IN THEIR UPPER AND LOWER CASES

/Aa/ /Bb/ /Cc/ /Dd/ /DZdz/ /Ɛɛ/ /Əǝ/ /Ff/ /Gg/ /GHgh/ /Ii/ /Jj/ /Kk/ /KHkh/ /Ll/ /Mm/ /Nn/ /Ŋŋ/ /NYny/ /Ɔɔ/ /Rr/ /Ss/ /SHsh/ /Tt/ /TSts/ /Uu/ /’/ /Ww/ /Yy/ /Zz/ /ZHzh

The Nkwen Language Alphabet (Second Edition)

The Nkwen Language Alphabet (Second Edition) https://youtu.be/jqCEOcIq9y8 Numbers in Nkwen Language

Analysis of the Second Edition of Nkwen Language Alphabet

This second edition of the Nkwen Language Alphabet is made up of 24 Consonants (M̀mi Mǝ Abɔ̀ŋnǝ̀), 6 Vowels (Nji-àbɔ̀ŋnǝ̀) and 1 glotal stop:

The Nkwen Language Consonants.

/b/ /c/ /d/ /dz/ /f/ /g/ /gh/ /j/ /k/ /kh/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ny/ /r/ /s/ /sh/ /t/ /ts/ /w/ /y/ /z/ /zh/

The Nkwen Language Vowels:

/a/ /ɛ/ /ǝ/ /i/ /ɔ/ /u/

The Glotal stop:

/’/

This second edition of the Nkwen Language Alphabet has double consonant sounds and some strange sounds as compared to the English Language Alphabet.

The Double Consonant Sounds 

The double consonants in the Nkwen Language Alphabet are considered single sounds but are made up of two letters each. When they come at the beginning of a sentence or in proper nouns, the two letters are written in caps. They are seven of them as follows.

/dz/ /gh/ /kh/ /ny/ /sh/ /ts/ /zh/

The Strange Sounds are four in number;

/ɛ/ /ǝ/ /ŋ/ /ɔ/

Sounds in the English Language Alphabet that are not found in the second edition of the Nkwen Language Alphabet are:

/e/ /h/ /p/ /q/ /v/ /x/

The /ɛ/ and /ǝ/ are more suitable than the English /e/

The letter /h/ does not stand alone but is always supported by other sounds as in /gh/ /kh/ /sh/ and /zh/, in

Ghǝ̌ – to go

khǝ̌ – to run

shǝ̂ – to weed

zhǎ – to comb

The letter /p/ is replaced by /b/ mostly in borrowed words like:

bɔ̀bɔ – pawpaw or papaya.

baba – papa or father

Bità – Peter

sounds closer to the /q/ are spelled with /k/ as in

kwatǝ – to repeat

Kwintà – Queenta

The /v/ and /x/ are not found at all.

THE NKWEN LANGUAGE ALPHABET

Aa 
 àbà’à (a door)
Bb
Bàtə (calabash)
Cc
cì’i  (to shake)
Dd
dədͻ’ͻ (a frog)
DZdz
ǹdzàà (an axe)
Єε
fεrə (a ring)
Əə
ə̀lwεnə̀ (a name)
Ff
Fͻrə (a rat)
Gg
gàŋə (to hold)
GHgh
Ghəghanə (butterfly)
Ii
àliliŋə (a bat)
Jj
Ǹjijì’ì (a fly)
Kk
kaa (a crab)
KHkh
ŋ̀kha (a fence)
Ll
lə̀ŋə (to stir)
Mm
mma (mother)
Nn
ǹnà (meat)
NYny
nyə (to drink)
Ŋŋ
Ŋͻrə (moon)
Ͻͻ
Ǹtͻ̀ (a pot)
Rr
ə̀làrə̀ (a bridge)
Ss
Sǔ (to wash)
Sh
shə̂ (to week)
Tt
tanə̀ (five)
TSts
tsà (a hall)
Uu
àkù (foot)

Àtɔ’ɔ̀ (a tin)
Ww
Wàrə̀ (a hawk)
Yy
Àyiyὲ
(a weaver bird)
Zz
Zə̀ŋsə̂ ( to bend)
ZH zh
Ǹzhà (a cumb)

Recent Review on the Second Edition of the the Nkwen Language.

It should be noted that the above second edition of the Nkwen Language Alphabet has been recently revised by CABTAL together with some members of the Nkwen Language Committee in a workshop that was aimed at developing the Nkwen Language in the lines of Literacy and Bible Translation. The few changes they have made this time, different from this second edition are:

The open /ɔ/ is now full /o/ eg . mɔɔ – moo (child)

The English /e/ has been added to the list of vowels making them seven in number; /a/ /ɛ/ /ǝ/ /e/ /o/ /u/

Some of the double consonant sounds are now considered as sub-sounds except /gh/ and /ny/ that are still double consonants .

The nasal /ŋ/ should not precede a consonant, e.g. ŋ̀garǝ̀ – ngarǝ̀. This entails subsequent writings in Nkwen Language that will bear these changes. The Nkwen Language Alphabet (Second Edition)

The Nkwen Language Alphabet (Second Edition)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlwSpS0eLyc&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk
Nkwen Language Alphabet (Second Edition)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlwSpS0eLyc&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk
Nkwen Language Alphabet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlwSpS0eLyc&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk

TONE MARKS IN THE NKWEN LANGUAGE

         Nkwen is a tone language. The tone marks can change the pronunciation and meanings of words when used in isolation and in sentences. In writing this language the different tone marks must be considered seriously. The following tones marks are observed in the Nkwen language: –

The Low tone (L)  `

The high tone (H)  ́ (observed but not marked)

The low high tone (L H)  ˇ 

The high low tone (H L) 

1.  Words with the low (L)     Tone

Àbàà        a bag

kàà             old basket

àkù            a leg

àtͻ̀’ͻ̀        a raffia bush

àshìshì         thread

bàtə̀        a wine calabash

ə̀làrə̀        bridge

àtàà            a snail

nǝ̀kùŋə̀    –    long basket

àkàrà        flitters(accra)

ǹdzàŋə̀        a song

àbà’à        a door

2.  Words with the High (H) Tone

Fͻrə            a rat

Ŋͻrə    moon (a month)

Cici’i        tadpole

Kͻ’ͻ        to climb

Səŋə        a bird

Muma        name (m)

Nənaŋə    –    chameleon

tǝtya – pepper


  • The above nouns in isolation take the HH tone pattern but when forming the plurals they change to a LHH pattern, e.g.:-

bə̀səŋə        birds

bə̀fͻrə        rats

bə̀nənaŋǝ  –    chameleons 

bə̀cici’i    –    tadpoles

bə̀tətya    –     some pepper

3.  Words with the Low-high (L H) Tone

        come

ghə̌    –    go

        write

khə̌     –    run

shə̌    –    stab

nyǐ        defecate

        return

        refuse

        to box

        to wash

fε ̌   –    go for a visit

zε̌     –    to peal

Words with the High-Low (H L) Tone Pattern

Fyâ        give

Shə̂   –    to weed

        to cry

Sû   –    entertain

Fû    –    go out

Zε̂    –    yawn

Some words also take a Low High Low (L H L) Tone Pattern. Eg 

Ŋ̀garə̀        a gun

fə̀nεnə̀        grass bird

àbaŋə̀        a barn

àbanə̀    –    fufu corn

àtͻ’ͻ̀     –    a tin

àtsaŋə̀        a prison

ə̀larə̀    –  part of the mouth

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlwSpS0eLyc&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk The Past Tense in Nkwen Language

TENSES IN NKWEN LANGUAGE

The Nkwen Language makes a distinction of three main tenses, the Present the Past and the Future Tenses. The past and the future tenses are subdivided into three forms each. In some cases, the differences between these tenses are shown by different tense markers that come before the verb or only tone melody on verbs and nouns.

PAST TENSE

  1. Today past tense   (p1) Markers : , ghǝ̌
  2. Yesterday past tense  (̀p2) Marker : Kǝ̀
  3. The remote past tense  (p3) Marker: lyǝ

FUTURE TENSE

  1. Today Future Tense        (F1) Marker :
  2. Tomorrow Future Tense (F2) Marker: bǝlya
  3. The remote future             – (F3) Marker : bǝlyǝ

   The differences between these tenses in some cases are shown by different tense markers that come before the verb or only tone marks on verbs and nouns.

TABLE 1:  TENSE MARKERS

P3P2P1PrF1F2F3
Lyә or 0 + verbKә + verbO, tɛ, ghǝ + verb+ verbBә + verbBe lya + verbBә lyә + verb

THE PRESENT TENSE

Events or situations associated with this tense take place at the moment of speaking. In English, it is the present progressive tense. There is no marker in this case, but there are tonal changes on verbs and nouns with the high tone dominating. E.g.

 lǝ̀ŋǝ abanǝ̀ _ I’m cooking corn fufu.

O lǝ̀ŋǝ abanǝ̀ _ You are cooking corn fufu.

A lǝ̀ŋǝ abanǝ̀ _ He /she/it is cooking corn fufu.

Bìi lǝ̀ŋǝ abanǝ̀ _ We are cooking corn fufu.

Bùu lǝ̀ŋǝ abanǝ̀ _ You (pl) are cooking corn fufu.

Bwo lǝ̀ŋǝ abanǝ̀ _ They are cooking corn fufu.

More Examples

  • Ngefo sǔ ǝkaŋǝ̀. Ngǝfo is cleaning the dishes.
  • Ǹdìfò cuwa ǝdìi. Ndifɔ is clearing the grass.
  • Ndemǝ wwa sǔ nnu. My brother/sister is bathing.
  • Bǝ̀lǝmǝ ba dorǝ. or Bǝ̀lǝmǝ ba dorǝ wwa. My brothers/sisters are playing.
  • Ətàa wwa fà’a afò. My father is working on the farm.
  • Mǝkuŋǝ mya bɛnǝ. The masquerade(s)/ dance groups is/are performing or dancing.
  • Ə̀bǝnkhǝ dorǝ wwa. The children are playing.
  • Mabrǝ wàa mǝmbǒ. Mother is harvesting bananas.

THE PAST TENSE

THE TODAY PAST TENSE (P1)                

    This tense marks actions or situations earlier than the moment of speaking and may be translated into English as the Present Perfect Tense. There are two tense markers, (tɛ̌ and ghǝ̌) that stress the time of action. In some cases, there are tonal differences in verbs and nouns (without any marker), with the low tone dominating. E.g.

  1. Talà kwùrә ǹnà.

Talà eaten meat  (word for word translation) 

Tala has eaten meat.  (free translation)

2. Ngәlà cù’u àkù’u   

Ngәla pounded achu.  

Ngǝla has pounded achu.

NB: There is no tense marker in the above examples but low tone dominating)

3. Ətàa tɛ̌ njyǝ.

Father p1 eaten

Father has eaten.

4.Talà tɛ̌ ǹtswì’ì nǝbyɛ̌.

Tala p1 fished fish          

Tala has just done fishing.

5. Ngәlͻ ghǝ ntͻŋә àzu’u.   

Ngәlͻ p1 dug yam       

Ngәlͻ has dug a yam. (some hours back)

6. Talà ghǝ̌ bà’à mәlù’ù.

Tala p1 tapped wine       

Tala has tapped wine. (some hours ago)

THE YESTERDAY PAST TENSE (P2)

A marker ‘kә ̀ sequentially lexicalizes the yesterday past tense’. This tense marks actions which took place not only yesterday but as far back as last year. E.g.

-Talà kә̀ kwurә nna әzͻ̌.

Tala p2  eat meat  yesterday.

Tala ate meat yesterday.

-Talà kǝ̀ ba’a mәlù’u ŋghà yi.

Tala p2 tapped wine last week.    

Tala tapped wine last  week.

-Talà kә̀ tswì’i nә̀byε ŋgù’u yi.

Tala p2 fished fish year last   

Tala did fishing last year

-Ngәlà kә̀ cù’u akù’u njwε yi.

Ngәla p2 pounded achu’u day before yesterday.

Ngәla pounded achu day before yesterday.

THE REMOTE PAST TENSE (P3)

This tense marks event that took place in the distant past or when the definiteness of the time is not of significant consequence at the moment of speaking. It is lexicalized by a marker ‘lyә’ or only by a tone melody. E.g. 

  1. Tala lyә kwurә nnà ŋgù’u tsә. 

Talà p3  ate meat year certain.

Tala ate meat a certain year.

   Or

Talǎ kwurә ǹnǎ ŋgù’u tsә̌.

Tala ate meat year certain. Tala ate meat a certain year.

2.Ngәlͻ lyә tͻŋә әdzu’u ŋgù’u tsә̌.   

Ngәlͻ p3 dug yams year certain

Ngәlͻ dug yams a certain year.

  Or

Ngәlͻ̌ tͻŋә әdzu’u ŋgù’u tsә̌.   

Ngәlͻ dug yams year certain

Ngәlͻ dug yams a certain year.

THE FUTURE TENSE

THE TODAY FUTURE F1

Marked by ““, the events or situations in this tense are to be completed a few minutes or a few hours from the moment of speaking on the same day. The certainty that the action will take place is very high. Eg 

a) Ngǝfò cu’u akù’u.

Ngefor F1 pound achu   

Ngefor will pound achu.

b)Talà   bà’à məlù’ù fǝ’ǝ̀ ǹkwǐfò.

Tala F1  tap wine time evening.  

Tala will tap wine in the evening.

2. THE TOMORROW FUTURE P2

This tense is lexicalized by ”  lya,” which occurs before the verb. It relates actions or events that will occur tomorrow, next week, next month or next year. The time limit cannot be extended too far into the future. Eg 

  1. Lə̀mə̀ lya laa əkù’u əzͻ.

Lem    p2 cook achu tomorrow.

 Lem will cook achu tomorrow

2) Lə̀mə̀ bə lyǎ  làa mma yi nghà.

Lem p2 dead celebration mother her next week.

Leme will celebrate the dead of her mother next week.

3) Lə̀mə̀ be lya ghə ntεnə ŋͻrə yε̌.

Lem    p2 go   coast month that. 

Lem will go to the coast next month.

4. Lə̀mə̀ bə lya ŋwà’àrə nlwitə̀ àkwà’anə̀ yi ŋgù’u.

Lem  p2     write final     exams her year.

lem shall write her final exams next year.

To know whether ŋgu’u (year) refers to next or last year the tense markers “be lya” (future) and “kə̀” (Past) must be considered, e.g 

 Lə̀mə̀ ̀ li’i nsùŋə yi ŋgù’u. (past) 

Lem cultivated her farm last year

Lə̀mə̀ bə lya li’i nsuŋə yi ŋgù’u. (future) – Lem shall cultivate her farm next year.

3. REMOTE FUTURE P3

The remote future tense is lexicalized by ‘bə lyə‘ and is associated with events that are to take place in the most distant future. They are mostly wise sayings and proverbs. The certainty of the action to be accomplished is not high. It is more on the negative than on the positive. This tense expresses an irrealis mood. Eg      

a.  Talà bə lyə bù’u nyù. 

Tala     p3 do   thing.

Tala shall do a terrible thing. (because of the unacceptable things that Tala does)

Bù’u’ and ‘ghə̀rə’ are synonyms for the verb ‘to do’ when directly translated, but ‘bu’u’ is to do something terrible while ‘ghərə’ is to do a normal thing.

b) Ǹtswǔ Ngənə̀fə̀mə̀ be lyə tsu mmu. (wise saying)

  Mouth   Ngenefemə    p3   

peak  fire.

Ngenefem’s mouth shall peak fire. (because Ngenefemə is a talkative.

c) Àya’à (nə̀dorə) be lyə jwε moo. (proverb)

Play      p3 give birth  child.

– Play shall give birth to a child.

More videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OIxfvH9E-0w&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk Advantages of COVID-19 for the future. With high combat on COVID-19 the future seems promising. The quarantine is doing more good than harm. My home skills just got better

NOUNS CLASSES

  1. Nouns That Form Their Plurals By Adding The Prefix ‘mə̀’ or ‘m’

Singular
ǹtsù
ǹtiŋə
ǹshi
nə̀bə̂
nə̀li
àbwɔ
nə̀gə̀’ə̀
nə̀tɔ̀ŋə
nə̀sâ
nə̀lwi
nə̀sͻ̀ŋə
àkù
ànyì
ǹfὲnə
nə̀tù’ù
èlwεnə̀
nə̀tù’u
nə̀twu’u
nə̀fuŋə̀
nə̀ka
nə̀lɔ̀ŋə
nə̀bɔ̀’ɔ 
àfwɔ̌
ǹdyâ
ǹsùŋə
ǹta’à
fə̀nyə
fə̀ŋkəbə̀
f̀əsàŋə̀
fǝ̀saŋǝ̀
nə̀fâ
ǹnà
Plurals
mə̀ntsù          – mouths
mə̀ntiŋə̀            – hearts
mə̀nshi            – faces
m̀bə̂                – breasts
m̀mi                 – eyes
m̀bwɔ              – hands
mə̀gə̀’ə̀             – jaws
mə̀tɔ̀ŋə           – navels
mə̀sâ              – buttocks
mə̀lwi             –noses
mə̀sͻ̀ŋə           – teeth
mə̀kù              – feet
mə̀nyì             – nails
mə̀nfɛ̀nə           – legs (sheens)
mə̀tù’ù           – thighs
mə̀lwεnə̀        – names
mə̀tù’u           – potatoes
mə̀twu’u        – nights
mə̀fuŋə           – fats
mə̀ka              – vehicles
mə̀lɔ̀ŋə           – guitars
mə̀bɔ̀’ɔ         – pumpkins
mə̀fwͻ̌         – medicines
mə̀la’à            – houses
mə̀sùŋə          – farms
mə̀nta’à          – hills
mə̀nyə            – snakes
mə̀ŋkəbə̀       – statues
mèsàŋə̀          – stars
mǝ̀saŋǝ           – brooms
mə̀fâ                – twins
mə̀nà              – animals
Nouns in Nkwen Language

Nouns That Form Their Plurals By Adding The Prefix (ə̀)

     Singular

àbà’à

àkaŋə̀

àlə̀ŋə

àliliŋə

àbàrə

àtsə̀’ə

àsͻ
Plurals

ə̀bà’à                   – doors

ə̀kaŋə̀                  – pans

ə̀lə̀ŋə                   – chairs

ə̀liliŋə                  – bats

ə̀bàrə              – mad persons

ə̀tsǝ̀’ə                   – dresses

ə̀sͻ                        – hoes

Nouns That Form Their Plurals By Adding The Prefix ‘bə̀’

Singular

m̀fɔ̀

ŋ̀kə̀mə

ǹcǐ

fɔrə

wàrə̀

kàŋə̀

ǹtɔ̀

lu’u

bàtə̀

ǹdìŋə̀

fεrə

dədͻ’ͻ

ŋù

Plural

bə̀fɔ̀                  – fons

bə̀kə̀mə            – nobles

bə̀ncǐ                  – inlaws

bə̀fͻrə              – rats

bə̀wàrə̀             – hawks

bə̀kàŋə̀          – squirrels

bə̀ntɔ̀             – pots

bə̀lu’u      – cooking spoons

bə̀bàtə̀      – wine calabash

bə̀lìŋə̀        – witches

bə̀fεrə        – rings

bə̀dədͻ’ͻ    – frogs

bǝ̀         – people

Collective nouns

Nkàa nyǔ  – a swamp of bees

àtàrə ŋkɔ’ɔndzə̀mə̀ – a herd of cattle

ngəŋə məmbɔ̌  – a bunch of bananas

ngəŋə nəŋgùŋə  – a bunch of  pantains

àtàrə̀ bəsəŋə        – a flock of birds

ǹno bə             – a crowd of people

àkà bəzεrə        – a gang of thieves

nə̀bəŋə nə ndə̀ŋə  – a bunch of bamboos

nə̀bəŋə nə əbi       – a bundle of̌ grass

àkwo ətǐ                – a forest of trees

Nouns that do nCollective, Uncountable and Abstract Nouns in Nkwen Languageot change their forms

ngwu      fowls
ngwo       dogs
m̀byi       goats
nkabè     money
Nouns in NKwen Language

   

Uncountable nouns

nkǐwater
ngwàsaŋəcorn
fǝ̀li’ì smoke
fə̀ŋgwaŋəsalt
mə̀wurəoil
mə̀lù’ùwine
ə̀liŋə̀blood
Nouns in Nkwen Language

   

     

Abstract nouns

Mə̀luwì        – anger
Mə̀lìŋnə̀  – sorrow
Mə̀cìi        – wisdom
Mə̀tὲnə̀     – power
Ǹjǐ            – hunger
àkwὲrəntiŋə̀ – perseverance
Nə̀bͻ̀ŋə̀      – beauty

Nouns in Nkwen Language

A TABLE OF NOUN PREFIXES IN NKWEN LANGUAGE

ClassNoun prefix
r
Examples
Free Translation

1.Ǹ (ǹ, m̀, ŋ̀)m̀fͻ̀
m̀byî
m̀bɛrǝ
chief
goat lazy-one




Ǹta’à
ǹnà
ǹcǐ

ǹsa’à ǹzɛrǝ̀
ǹsùŋə
Hill,
animal
faher-in-law
injection thief
farm



nkyî
ngwͻ ŋ̀garǝ̀ ŋ̀kǝ̀mə
nkɛnǝ̀ ŋ̀fɔ̀ŋǝ
Water
dog
gun
noble
message cup




2.Bə̀fͻ̀, bə̀kə̀mə, bə̀ntͻ̀, bǝ̀zɛ̀rǝChiefs nobles
pots
thieves

3.əə̀kɔ’ͻ̀, ə̀làrə̀, ə̀lὲrə̀
ǝ̀twɛ̀’ɛ̀
ladder bridge
twain
pilar

4.̀Nə̀sa, nə̀lͻ̀ŋə, nə̀fâ
nǝ̀là’a
Buttock radio
twin
net

5.̀Mə̀nta’à,
mǝ̀kù
mǝ̀sâ mǝkû, mə̀fâ
mǝ̀là’a
Hills
legs
buttocks
beans
twins
nets

6.à̀àkù,
àtî,
àfwͻ̂
àkaŋǝ̀
àlǝ̀ŋǝ
Foot
tree
leave
pan
chair

7.ǝ̀ə̀sͻ, ə̀tsə̀’ə
ə̀bà’à
ǝ̀lǝ̀ŋǝ
ǝ̀kaŋǝ̀
Hoes, clothes, doors
chairs
pans

8.̀Fə̀ŋkəbə̀, fəkəbə, fə̀ŋnyə
fǝ̀sàŋǝ̀
Statue, spoon, snake
star

9.фKàŋə̀
fͻrə
bàtǝ̀

wàrə̀
taŋkǎ
yɛ̀rǝ̀
Squirrel
rat
wine- calabash
hawk
friend
earing
A TABLE OF NOUN PREFIXES IN NKWEN LANGUAGE

COHESION

Different markers are use to indicate cohesion (unity) in various noun phrases. Some of them can be expressed as follows.

wuma

Ǹkə̀mə̀ wuma bə kə zͻ’ͻ.    –The noble that was installed.

M̀fͻ wuma bə kə nùsə.     – The chief that was enthroned.

Ǹcì wuma a kə yìi.          – The Father-in-law who came.

Kàŋə̀ wuma Talà kə kͻ.        – The squirrel that Tala caught.

Əkù wuma Ndì kə kuŋə.    – The bed that Ndi made.

Nta’a wuma bə kə tͻ.        The hill that was burnt.

Ŋkyi wuma ə ŋwa’a.        The water that is clean.

zuma

Nə̀lͻ̀ŋə̀ zuma bə bu’u a.   

The radio that is played.

Nə̀fa zuma nə kwͻ (yɛnə).   

The twin that is dead.

Àkù zuma ə zaŋə.           

The foot that is paining.

Àtì zuma be wa.           

The tree that is cut

Ǹnà zuma bə kə̀ kͻ.       

The animal that was caught.

buma

Bə̀fͻ̀ bu ma bə zͻ’ͻ.       

The chiefs who are enthroned.

Bə̀kə̀mə̀ bu ma be zͻ’ͻ.       

The nobles that are installed.

Bə̀fͻrə bu ma bə kə kͻtə.      The rats that are caught.

Bə̀ntͻ̀ bu ma bə ŋwa’a.       

The pots which are clean.

Bə̀kàŋə̀ buma bə kͻtə.       

The squirrels that are caught.

Fuma 

Fə̀ŋnyə fu ma fə tya yi .   

The snake that has bitten him/her.

Fə̀ŋkəbə fu ma be kuŋə .   

The statue that is calved.

dzwu ma

Əsͻ dzwu ma bə zû .         

The hoes that are bought.

Ətsə’ə dzwu ma bə ta.       

The dresses that are sown.

əba’a dzwu ma bə nyεsə.   

The doors that a renovated.

əkaŋə dzwu ma bə mε’ε.   

The pan (dishes) that are thrown.

N.B: N.B: “Buma and dzwu ma” make cohesion in the plural classes’ nouns while “wuma, zuma and fuma” are markers for nouns in the singular classes.

PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
SingularPluralPerson
Mə  (Subject)  mwͻ  (object)  Bìi        – we1st person
Ͻ  (Subject)  wwͻ̀  (object)  YouBùu      – you2nd person
À   , ə  (Subjects)   zhə  (object)        he/she/itBwͻ   – they/them3rd person
Personal pronouns in Nkwen Language

ghə mətanə.            I am going to the market.   

ͻ ghə mətanə.            You are going to the market

A ghə mətanə.            He/she is going to the market   

Ə ghe mətanə.            It is going to the market.       

Bìi ghə mətanə.            We are going to the market.

Bùu ghə mətanə.        You are going to the market.

Bwͻ ghə mətanə        They are going to the market.

Fyâ nə mwͻ.            Give me.

Mə bə fya ambwͻ wwͻ̀.    I will give them.

Ɔ̀ bə fya ambwͻ zhə.              You will give it to her/him.

Bwͻ bə fya ambwͻ bwͻ.    They will give it to them.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

M̀fͻ̀ wwà        my chief         m̀fͻ̀̀ wi bə wwà    – this chief is mine.     

M̀fͻ̀ wwͻ̀        your chief            m̀fͻ̀ wi bə wwͻ   – this chief is yours.

M̀fͻ̀ yε        his/her chief    m̀fͻ̀ wi  bə yε  – this chief is his/hers

M̀fͻ̀ wìi        our chief        m̀fͻ̀ wi bə wìi  – this chief is ours.

M̀fͻ̀ wwu        your chief           m̀fͻ̀ wi bə wwu  – this chief is yours.

M̀fͻ̀ wwa        their chief      m̀fͻ̀ wi  bə wwa  – this chief is theirs.


Noun
1st person singular2nd person singular3rd person singular1st person plural2nd person plural3rd person plural
my/mineyour/yourshis/her/hersOur/oursyour/yourstheir/theirs
m̀fͻ̀  chiefWawwͻ̀wìiwwuwwa
fəkəbə  spoonwawwͻ̀wìiwwuwwa
bə̀ntͻ̀  potsbwͻbibiibubyâ
bə̀səŋə birdsbwͻbibiibubyâ
nə̀sͻ̀ŋə toothzazhəzhiziizuzha
nə̀lͻ̀ŋəRadiozazhəzhiziizuuzha
mə̀sͻ̀ŋə  teethmamwͻmimiimuumya
mə̀kû  beansmamwͻmimiimuumya
ǹtaməshoesdzwajwͻjwidzwidzwujwa
ngwû   fowlsdzwajwͻjwidzwidzwujwa
fə̀nkəbə̀  statuefafwͻfiFiifuufya
fə̀ŋnyə   snakefafwͻfiFiifuufya
Possessive Pronouns in Nkwen Language

Sequential Pronouns

Ləm à ghə nkha adzͻ, mbû nsû, nti’i nniŋə a məme àkaŋə nkwusə. (Lem went and harvested plums, came back, prepared it, put it in a dish and covered.)

The sequential markers m, n, as illustrated above, refer to the same subject “Ləm.” Without these markers, the sentence cannot be coherent. Thus there is a degree of cohesion between these markers and the subject for several verbs in a sequence.  

Greetings in Nkwen Language

Simple Greetings     and        Response

Take note of the word for word translation and the free translation of the phrases.

Ǹjwε làa?          À a.  Ǹjwε làa.

Day break?       Yes. Day break?

Good morning.        Yes. Good morning.

A bə la?                    A bͻŋə̀.

It how is?                    It fine.

How are you                I’m fine.

Bùù sa’à kə̀?   bii bͻnə. Kə̀ sà’a bùù lə?

You happen what?        We fine. Or happen yours?

How are you people?      We are fine. And you?

Ɔ̀ zìi            À a. Ɔ̀ bùu?

You spend the day?    Yes. You back

Good afternoon (Evening).     Yes. Welcome back!

Ɔ̀ bùu?        À a. Ɔ̀ dzwi wu?

You back?  Yes. You are there?

Məyà wwͻ̀.   À a.  Nə wwͻ̀.

Thank you.      Yes. And yours

Thank you.   Yes. Thank you too.

Fəlyε fwͻ.      À a. Nə fwͻ

Sleep yours       Yes. And yours

Good night.     Yes. Good night.
Yìi nshi’ìnə.    À a məyà wwͻ̀.

Come good       Yes. Thank you.

Welcome      Yes.  Thank you.

Mə tsὲ’ὲtə̌        À a. A be la?

Am greeting          Yes. It how is

Greetings to you.  Yes. How are you?


Greetings in Nkwen Language https://youtu.be/9_JEaHd0zNU https://youtu.be/GW3v9sbIhHo
Nkwen Language Alphabet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5_HVUKy5_Q&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk Mastering the Alphabet 2; Sounds in words; Enabling Reading for Slow Learners Mastering The Alphabet 1, 2 and 3; Enabling Reading For Slow Learners E-book Series
More lessons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5_HVUKy5_Q&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk With high combat on COVID-19 the future seems promising (Advantages of COVID-19) How my backyard garden came to reality
Mastering the English Alphabet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ujl3jtLzO-4&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLIH9KxSwacoxdZ3m76vsYsD The quarantine is doing more good than harm. My home skills just got better Advantages of COVID-19 for the future. With high combat on COVID-19 the future seems promising. Greetings in Nkwen Language