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Revision on Erosion, plant care and soil

Erosion and soil

Erosion and soil

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 Erosion and soil

Environmental Science Revision on Erosion and soil for kids 4 through 12
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  1. The washing or the wearing away of a field’s topsoil by water, and the wind is known as _______ erosion
  2. The two main types of erosion are _________ water and wind erosion
  3. Man causes erosion through farming activities such as  __________ tillage
  4. The washing away of topsoil by water is known as __________ water erosion.
  5. The carrying away of topsoil by wind is known as __________ wind erosion.
  6. Agents of erosion or things that cause erosion include ________ water, wind, man, and animals.
  1. Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields.
  2. It also sends soil-laden water downstream, which can create heavy layers of sediment that prevent streams and rivers from flowing smoothly
  3. It can eventually lead to flooding.
  4. Once soil erosion occurs, it is more likely to happen again if not prevented
How can we prevent erosion in agriculture?
We can prevent erosion by:
  1. keep the soil covered as much as possible 
  2. Practice Crop rotations 
  3. control runoff before it develops into an erosive force
   Plant Protection
  1. Unwanted plants or any plant growing where it is not wanted is called___ weeds
  2. When plants dry off as a result of lack of water in the soil it is known as ____________ wilting
  3. The provision of a cover over crops to reduce transpiration is known as ______ shading
  4. The covering of the topsoil by grass or undecomposed materials such as straw, hay, under plants to prevent loss of water and growth of weeds is known as ________ mulching.

Some advantages of mulching are:

  1. It reduces water loss from the soil surface, which helps maintain soil moisture.
  2. Moderates soil temperatures, keeping it warmer on cold nights and cooler on hot days.
  3. Protects bare soil and reduces erosion and soil compaction.
  4. In orchards, mulching materials are most often applied ____ under trees to maintain their growth and stability.
Thinning, Grafting, and Budding
  1. The careful removal of some crop plants to avoid overcrowding and give room for the growth of others is known as __________ thinning 
  2. The providing of stakes for climbing stems like yams is known as ______________ staking.
  3.  Horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant are called ______ Grafting and budding.
  4.  The technique where the upper part (scion) of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant is known as ________ Grafting
  5. The process where a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another is known as_________ budding

SOIL

  1. The loose top layer of the earth’s surface on which plants grow is known as ________ soil
  2. Soil is formed in the process of breaking down rocks known as ________weathering
  3. In the process of weathering, The bedrock breaks down into pieces due to the effects of _______ heat, cold, water, wind, and rain. 
  4. The agents of weathering are_______ temperature, wind, rain, plants, and animals.
  5. Things that compost or make up the soil are _______  minerals, organic matter, water, and air
  6. The four components of soil in their proportion are _______  mineral matter 45%, organic matter 5%, air 25%, and water 25%.
  7.  a vertical cross-section of the soil (from top to bottom is known as _____ A soil profile 
  8. The various layers of soil are also called ______ soil horizons
  9. Each horizon of soil may be different from the other horizons in ____  physical or chemical ways.
  10. There are four types of soil namely_________  loam soil, sandy soil, clay soil, and humus soil.
  11. Humus soil is also referred to as ___ Manure
  12. The best soil for agriculture is _________ loam soil
  13. The most fertile soil is _________ Humus soil
  14. Fertile soil carried by rainwater to the banks of rivers is called _____ alluvial soil
  15. A thick heavy soil that water hardly penetrates is called ___ clay soil.
  16. A type of loose light soil that is permeable by water is known as __________________ sandy soil.

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