Erosion and soil
Environmental Science Revision on Erosion and soil for kids 4 through 12
- The washing or the wearing away of a field’s topsoil by water, and the wind is known as _______ erosion
- The two main types of erosion are _________ water and wind erosion
- Man causes erosion through farming activities such as __________ tillage
- The washing away of topsoil by water is known as __________ water erosion.
- The carrying away of topsoil by wind is known as __________ wind erosion.
- Agents of erosion or things that cause erosion include ________ water, wind, man, and animals.
Some effects of erosion are:
- Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields.
- It also sends soil-laden water downstream, which can create heavy layers of sediment that prevent streams and rivers from flowing smoothly
- It can eventually lead to flooding.
- Once soil erosion occurs, it is more likely to happen again if not prevented
How can we prevent erosion in agriculture?
We can prevent erosion by:
- keep the soil covered as much as possible
- Practice Crop rotations
- control runoff before it develops into an erosive force
- Unwanted plants or any plant growing where it is not wanted is called___ weeds
- When plants dry off as a result of lack of water in the soil it is known as ____________ wilting
- The provision of a cover over crops to reduce transpiration is known as ______ shading
- The covering of the topsoil by grass or undecomposed materials such as straw, hay, under plants to prevent loss of water and growth of weeds is known as ________ mulching.
Some advantages of mulching are:
- It reduces water loss from the soil surface, which helps maintain soil moisture.
- Moderates soil temperatures, keeping it warmer on cold nights and cooler on hot days.
- Protects bare soil and reduces erosion and soil compaction.
- In orchards, mulching materials are most often applied ____ under trees to maintain their growth and stability.
Thinning, Grafting, and Budding
- The careful removal of some crop plants to avoid overcrowding and give room for the growth of others is known as __________ thinning
- The providing of stakes for climbing stems like yams is known as ______________ staking.
- Horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant are called ______ Grafting and budding.
- The technique where the upper part (scion) of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant is known as ________ Grafting
- The process where a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another is known as_________ budding
- The loose top layer of the earth’s surface on which plants grow is known as ________ soil
- Soil is formed in the process of breaking down rocks known as ________weathering
- In the process of weathering, The bedrock breaks down into pieces due to the effects of _______ heat, cold, water, wind, and rain.
- The agents of weathering are_______ temperature, wind, rain, plants, and animals.
- Things that compost or make up the soil are _______ minerals, organic matter, water, and air
- The four components of soil in their proportion are _______ mineral matter 45%, organic matter 5%, air 25%, and water 25%.
- a vertical cross-section of the soil (from top to bottom is known as _____ A soil profile
- The various layers of soil are also called ______ soil horizons
- Each horizon of soil may be different from the other horizons in ____ physical or chemical ways.
- There are four types of soil namely_________ loam soil, sandy soil, clay soil, and humus soil.
- Humus soil is also referred to as ___ Manure
- The best soil for agriculture is _________ loam soil
- The most fertile soil is _________ Humus soil
- Fertile soil carried by rainwater to the banks of rivers is called _____ alluvial soil
- A thick heavy soil that water hardly penetrates is called ___ clay soil.
- A type of loose light soil that is permeable by water is known as __________________ sandy soil.
Erosion and soil