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The Future Tense in Nkwen Language

THE TODAY FUTURE F1
Marked by “bə”, the events or situations in this tense are to be completed a few minutes or a few hours from the moment of speaking on the same day. The certainty that the action will take place is very high.

  1. THE TODAY FUTURE F1

Marked by ““, the events or situations in this tense are to be completed a few minutes or a few hours from the moment of speaking on the same day. The certainty that the action will take place is very high.  Eg 

a) Ngǝfò cu’u akù’u.

Ngefor F1 pound achu   

Ngefor will pound achu.

b)Talà   bà’à məlù’ù fǝ’ǝ̀ ǹkwǐfò.

Tala F1  tap wine time evening.  

Tala will tap wine in the evening.

2. THE TOMORROW FUTURE F2

This tense is lexicalized by ” lya“, which occurs before the verb. It relates actions or events which will take place tomorrow, next week, next month or next year. The time limit cannot be extended too far into the future. Eg 

  1. Lə̀mə̀ lya laa əkù’u əzͻ.

Lem    p2 cook achu tomorrow.

 Lem will cook achu tomorrow

2) Lə̀mə̀ bə lyǎ  làa mma yi nghà.

Lem p2 dead celebration mother her next week.

Leme will celebrate the dead of her mother next week.

3) Lə̀mə̀ be lya ghə ntεnə ŋͻrə yε̌.

Lem    p2 go   coast month that. 

Lem will go to the coast next month.

4. Lə̀mə̀ bə lya ŋwà’àrə nlwitə̀ àkwà’anə̀ yi ngù’u.

Lem  p2     write final     exams her year.

lem shall write her final exams next year.

To know whether ngu’u (year) refers to next or last year the tense markers “be lya” (future) and “kə̀” (Past) must be considered, e.g 

 Lə̀mə̀ ̀ li’i nsùŋə yi ŋgù’u. (past) 

Lem cultivated her farm last year

Lə̀mə̀ bə lya li’i nsuŋə yi ŋgù’u. (future) – Lem shall cultivate her farm next year.

3. REMOTE FUTURE F3

The remote future tense is lexicalized by ‘bə lyə’ and is associated with events which are to take place in the most distant future. They are mostly wise sayings and proverbs. The certainty of the action to be accomplished is not high. In fact, it is more on the negative than on the positive. This tense expresses irrealis mood. Eg      

a.  Talà bə lyə bù’u nyù. 

Tala     p3 do   thing.

Tala shall do a terrible thing. (because of the unacceptable things that Tala does)

Bù’u’ and ‘ghə̀rə’ are synonyms for the verb ‘to do’ when directly translated, but ‘bu’u’ is to do something terrible while ‘ghərə’ is to do a normal thing.

b) Ǹtswǔ Ngənə̀fə̀mə̀ be lyə tsu mmu. (wise saying)

  Mouth   Ngenefemə    p3   

peak  fire.

Ngenefem’s mouth shall peak fire. (because Ngenefemə is a talkative.

c) Àya’à (nə̀dorə) be lyə jwε moo. (proverb)

Play      p3 give birth  child.

– Play shall give birth to a child.

More on Nkwen Language https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlwSpS0eLyc&list=PL_ihUsy6_PLKYRhQJ1B65SZ5XN1sLjNBk The Past Tense in Nkwen Language The present Tense in Nkwen Language
The present continues tense https://youtu.be/6llHG3UaSZo The present Tense in Nkwen Language The Future Tense in Nkwen Language

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